Fall is a great time to control many noxious and winter annual weeds. With a relatively early, dry harvest this year, we have a timely window to get some spraying done.
If weeds were sprayed or clipped — set back in some way — previously this summer and have significant regrowth on them at this time, now is an excellent time to spray to achieve a good kill. If controlled earlier in the season, but plant regrowth is minimal or the plant is drying up, spraying may or may not be effective.
If you spray these areas, using a chemical with residual effect can help with control when plants begin actively growing again. Depending on weed species and your 2022 intended crop, residual control options may not be available to you and a burndown may be the best option. Be sure to check with an agronomist and read through pesticide labels to ensure you are not putting your 2022 plans at risk due to carry-over.
If weeds were not controlled earlier and are now tall and quite mature, herbicide control at this time is likely not worth the investment. Since frost is likely to occur soon for most of the state, remember that perennial plants have started to send nutrients to the roots to prepare for the winter. This means spraying perennials — Leafy Spurge, Canada Thistle, Sow Thistle, etc. — very soon is imperative.
While we’re talking about adding to late-season fieldwork, fall is also the ideal time of year to test your fields for soybean cyst nematode — SCN. Testing is a simple process that may save you money in the long run.
SCN sampling can actually take place anytime in any crop, but there is likely to be a higher and more detectable occurrence of SCN in the fall following a soybean crop. Soybean Cyst Nematode is an all-too-common yield robber. In fact, it’s considered the most damaging soybean pathogen in North America with research showing that it can cause over 40 percent yield loss in some cases. This pest can quietly sneak up on growers as it causes yield loss with no obvious above-ground symptoms.
SCN poses a threat to many growers throughout South Dakota as it has been positively confirmed in many counties. This nematode attacks the root of the soybean plant, which in turn, can pose a greater risk for other fungal pathogens to easily infest the plant through open wounds.
SCN tends to spread from field to field by equipment, erosion, wildlife and other environmental factors. Once a field is infested with SCN, it is highly unlikely to eradicate it. However, reducing the population is possible.
If SCN is detected in a field, there are several integrated pest management practices that should be considered. Lengthening crop rotation — three crops or more — removes the host crop — soybean — for a longer period of time, which can help to decrease SCN populations. Other options include purchasing SCN resistant soybean cultivars for any level of infestation or the use of nematicide seed treatments in heavy infestations — >10,000 eggs/100 cc of soil.
Soybean Cyst Nematode lives in the top 8 inches of the soil. So when testing, use a soil probe or spade to take at least 20 topsoil samples at an 8-inch depth in areas no larger than 15 to 20 acres. Field entrances, low-lying areas and fence lines are good areas to target. When sampling, angling the probe or spade into the soybean row is an ideal practice. Soil should be mixed well and placed in a soil sample bag.
South Dakota growers can obtain SCN soil sample bags and SCN testing free of charge through the South Dakota State University Plant Diagnostic Clinic, courtesy of the South Dakota Soybean Research and Promotion Council.
To obtain SCN soil sample bags and submission form and instructions call 605-688-5545 or 605-688-4521 or stop by an SDSU Extension Regional Office. The sample submission form can also be found at the SDSU Plant Diagnostic Clinic website — go to sdstate.edu and search “SDSU Plant Diagnostic Clinic.”
Sampling fields every 2-3 years can help monitor populations — or lack thereof — and help explain yield losses in question. For additional information on SCN and to better understand SCN test results, visit extension.sdstate.edu and search “SCN.”
Sara Bauder is an agronomy field specialist with the South Dakota State University’s Mitchell Regional Center.